Created by: Anne Wood
Andrew Davenport
Developed by: Ragdoll Productions
Darrall Macqueen Ltd[1]
Starring: Original series:
Dave Thompson
Simon Shelton
John Simmit
Nikky Smedley
Pui Fan Lee
Revival series:
Nick Kellington
Rebecca Hyland
Jeremiah Krage
Rachelle Beinart
Voices of: Original series:
Toyah Willcox
Eric Sykes
Mark Heenehan
Revival series:
Jane Horrocks
Jim Broadbent
Fearne Cotton
David Walliams
Rochelle Humes[2]
Narrated by: Tim Whitnall[3]
Daniel Rigby[4]
Opening theme: "Teletubbies say 'Eh-oh!'"
Country of origin United Kingdom
Original language(s) English
No. of episodes: 425 (list of episode)
Executive producer(s): David G. Hiller
Vic Finch
Location(s): Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire[5]
Running time: 25 minutes
Distributor: Pinewood Studios[6]
DHX Media[7]
Viacom International[8]
Original channel: CBeebies
Picture format: 480i (1997–2001)
1080i (2015–present)
Original run: Original series:
31 March 1997 – 16 February 2001
Revival series:
9 November 2015 – present
External links

Teletubbies is a British pre-school children's television series created by Ragdoll Productions' Anne Wood and Andrew Davenport. The programme focuses on four multi-coloured creatures known as "Teletubbies," named for the television screens implanted in their abdomens. Recognised throughout popular culture for the uniquely-shaped antenna protruding from the heads of each character, the Teletubbies communicate through gibberish and were designed to bear resemblance to young children.[9]

Particularly notable for its high production values, the series rapidly became a commercial success in Britain and abroad. It won multiple BAFTA awards and was nominated for two Daytime Emmys throughout its run.[10][11] A single based on the show's theme song reached number 1 in the UK Singles Chart in December 1997 and remained in the Top 75 for 32 weeks, selling over a million copies.[12]

Though production on the first 365 episodes had been announced cancelled in 2002,[13] sixty new episodes were ordered in 2014.[14] They are currently aired on CBeebies in the United Kingdom and on Nick Jr. in the United States.[15] Re-runs of the original 1997–2001 series continue to be shown on relevant television channels worldwide, some years after the original run's conclusion.

Plot Edit

The programme takes place in a grassy, floral landscape populated by rabbits with bird calls audible in the background. The main shelter of the four Teletubbies is an earth house (known as the "Tubbytronic Superdome") implanted in the ground and accessed through a hole at the top or an especially large semicircular door at the dome's foot. The creatures co–exist with a number of strange contraptions such as the Noo-noo, the group's anthropomorphic blue vacuum cleaner, and the Voice Trumpets. The show's colourful, psychedelic setting was designed specifically to appeal to the attention spans of infants and unlock different sections of the mind while also educating young children of transitions that can be expected in life.

An assortment of rituals are performed throughout the course of every episode, such as the playful interactions between the Teletubbies and the Voice Trumpets, the mishaps caused by the Noo-noo, the footage of live children displayed on the screens in the Teletubbies' stomachs, and the magical event that occurs once per episode. The event differs each time; it is often caused inexplicably and is frequently strange yet whimsical. Each episode is closed by the Voice Trumpets and the narrator to the disappointed, reluctant, but eventually obedient Teletubbies, who bid farewell to the viewer as they go back to the Tubbytronic Superdome while the Sun baby sets.

Characters Edit


The main characters. From left to right: Dipsy, Laa-Laa, Po, and Tinky Winky.

Main charactersEdit

  • Dipsy (played by John Simmit in the original series and by Nick Kellington in the revival series)[18] is the second Teletubby. He is green and named after his antenna, which resembles a dipstick. Dipsy is the most stubborn of the Teletubbies, and will occasionally refuse to go along with the others' group opinion. His face is notably darker than the rest of the Teletubbies, and the creators have stated that he is black.[19]
  • Laa-Laa (played by Nikky Smedley in the original series and by Rebecca Hyland in the revival series)[18] is the third Teletubby. She is yellow and has a curly antenna. Laa-Laa is very sweet, likes to sing and dance, and is often shown looking out for the other Teletubbies. Her favorite toy is an orange rubber ball.
  • Po (played by Pui Fan Lee in the original series and by Rachelle Beinart in the revival series)[18] is the fourth Teletubby, as well as the shortest and youngest. She is red and has an antenna shaped like a stick used for blowing soap bubbles. Po normally speaks in a soft voice and has been stated by the show's creators to be Cantonese.[19]

Supporting charactersEdit

  • The Noo-noo (operated by Mark Dean in the original series and Olly Taylor in the revival series)[20] is a conscientious vacuum cleaner who acts as both the Teletubbies' guardian and housekeeper. He hardly ever ventures outside the Tubbytronic Superdome, instead, remaining indoors and constantly cleaning with his sucker-like nose. He communicates through a series of slurping and sucking noises.
  • The Voice Trumpets (voiced by Fearne Cotton, Jim Broadbent and Antonia Thomas in the revival series)[21] are several devices resembling periscopes that rise from the ground and interact with the Teletubbies, often engaging in games with them and serving as supervisors. They are the only residents of Teletubbyland who speak in complete sentences.
  • The Sun Baby (played by Jess Smith in the original series)[22] appears at the beginning and end of each episode. She acts as a wake-up call for the Teletubbies.
  • Numerous rabbits are found throughout Teletubbyland, and are depicted by several Flemish Giant rabbits. The Teletubbies enjoy watching them hop and play. The rabbits are the only type of Earth animal found in the land, and take residence in rabbit holes and bushes.
  • The Tubby Phone (voiced by Jane Horrocks)[21] is a character in the revival series, who transports the Teletubbies to the modern world.
  • The Tiddlytubbies (voiced by Teresa Gallagher) are baby Teletubbies appearing in the revival series. Their names are Mi-Mi, Daa Daa, Baa, Ping, RuRu, Nin, Duggle Dee and Umby Pumby.[23]


Main article: List of Teletubbies episodes


On 31 March 1997, the first episode of Teletubbies aired on BBC2. It filled a timeslot previously held by Playdays. This schedule change initially received backlash from parents, but the show wasn't moved.[24] The programme's unconventional format quickly received attention from the media, and it was attracting two million viewers per episode by August.[25] In February 1998, The Sydney Morning Herald noted that it had "reached cult status" in less than a year on the air.[26]

Teletubbies has been aired in over 120 countries in 45 different languages.[27][28] In the United States, the series airs on Nickelodeon as part of the Nick Jr. block.[29][30] Episodes are also released through the Nick Jr. mobile application and on-demand services.[31][32] The original series is available as part of the Noggin subscription service in North America.[33][34] It had aired on PBS Kids until 29 August 2008, along with Mister Rogers' Neighborhood, Reading Rainbow and Boohbah; it had also aired on PBS Kids Sprout. BBC Worldwide channels carry the series in most of Africa, Asia and Poland.[35] A Spanish dub airs on Clan in Spain.[36] In Greece, the series airs on Nickelodeon Greece.[37] NPO Zappelin carries the show in the Netherlands and MTVA airs it in Hungary.[35] In Australia and New Zealand, the series airs on CBeebies Australia[38] and ABC Kids. JimJam's Benelux feed airs the series and Ultra airs it in Serbia.[36] Teletubbies also airs on SIC in Portugal and e-Junior in the Middle East.[35]

Promotion Edit

Merchandising Edit


A kiddie ride at Chuck E. Cheese's featuring the Teletubbies characters.

Golden Bear Toys distributed the first line of Teletubbies dolls shortly after the programme's debut.[39] They were sold internationally, with talking toys available in multiple languages.[40] Hasbro signed on to develop a new range of products in 1998.[41] In 1999, Microsoft UK released a set of interactive "ActiMates" toys based on the characters.[42] The Rasta Imposta company introduced Teletubbies costumes for children and adults in the same year.[43] Two educational video games featuring the characters were also released throughout the series' run.[44][45]

Teletubbies dolls were the top-selling Christmas toy in 1997.[46][47] Demand outstripped supply at most retailers, reportedly prompting many shops to ration them to one per customer.[48] In some cases, shoppers camped outside stores overnight in hopes of purchasing Teletubbies merchandise.[49][50] Fights over the toys broke out among parents and collectors on occasion.[51][52] Over one million dolls were sold in Britain by 25 December of that year, with Golden Bear representatives estimating that sales could've reached three million if supplies had been available.[53] The plush toys were named "Toy of the Year" by the British Association of Toy Retailers in 1998.[54]

Kids' meal tie-ins have been released at fast-food restaurants throughout North America. In May 1999, Burger King distributed a set of six Teletubbies plush toys.[55] They also included chicken nuggets shaped like the characters on their menu for a brief period of time.[56] Keychains modelled after the characters were available at McDonald's in April 2000.[57] These promotions became controversial among adults who believed they were intended to attract toddlers to high-fat food.[58] Psychiatrist Alvin Francis Poussaint considered the deals "troubling."[59] He voiced his opinion on the matter publicly, but didn't take action against the companies.[60]

Two kiddie rides featuring the characters were manufactured by Jolly Roger.[61] They were available at select amusement parks and arcades, such as Chuck E. Cheese's and Fantasy Island.[62]

Overseas Teletubbies merchandise sales throughout the 1990s delivered €136 million in profits for the BBC.[63] By the time of the programme's cancellation, Teletubbies toys had generated over £200 million in revenue for co-creator Anne Wood alone.[64] In 2005, Chris Hastings and Ben Jones of The Daily Telegraph called Teletubbies "the most lucrative show in BBC television history."[65]

Live events Edit

To commemorate the tenth anniversary of the premiere of Teletubbies, a series of events took place from March to April 2007.[66] The characters headlined an invitation-only event in London on 21 March 2007. They appeared in New York City's Times Square, Grand Central Terminal, and Apollo Theater. They were also interviewed on The Today Show in an episode that included the first televised appearance of the actors without their costumes. A partnership was formed with Isaac Mizrahi in which Mizrahi designed Teletubbies-inspired bags to be auctioned off to benefit charities. A new line of clothing was launched at the Pop-Up Shop[67] and other specialty stores. New York City mayor Mike Bloomberg announced 28 March 2007 "Teletubbies Day" and gave the key to the city to the Teletubbies. Following their show in New York, the Teletubbies went on their first live European tour , performing in London, Paris, Bremen, Darmstadt, Halle, Hamburg, Köln, and Hannover.[68]

In January 2016, costumed Teletubbies characters appeared at the American International Toy Fair.[69] In April 2016, the series' premiere on the Greek Nickelodeon channel was advertised with a series of appearances by the Teletubbies at malls throughout Athens.[70][71] This began with a live show at Avenue Mall on 16 April, which featured both the Teletubbies and a host from the network.[72] Throughout May 2016, the characters appeared on various breakfast television programmes to promote the upcoming series' debut on Nickelodeon in the United States.[73][74]

Reception Edit

Critical reception Edit

The series received mixed reviews from critics. Common Sense Media's Emily Ashby found that "while the show's examples of cooperative play, wonder, and simple joys are gentle and pleasing, the creatures can still be a little grating to parents watching along."[75] Caryn James of The New York Times stated in her review that the episodes "offer a genuinely appealing combination: cute and slightly surreal."[76]

Upon the show's release, some critics feared that the characters' use of babbling in place of complete sentences would negatively affect young viewers' ability to communicate. The Daily Mirror reported in 1997 that many parents objected to its "goo-goo style" and "said the show was a bad influence on their children."[77] Marina Krcmar, a professor of communication at the Wake Forest University, told interviewers in 2007 that "toddlers learn more from an adult speaker than they do from a program such as Teletubbies."[78] Psychiatrist Aric Sigman has expressed his belief that "Teletubbies is as bad for your child as a violent video game."[79] However, Paul McCann of The Independent defended this aspect of the show, stating that "Teletubbies upsets those who automatically assume that progressive and creative learning is trendy nonsense. Those who believe that education should be strictly disciplined and functional, even when you're 18 months old. Thankfully Teletubbies isn't for them. It's for kids."[24]

Tinky Winky controversy Edit

Tinky Winky started a controversy in 1999 because of his carrying a bag that looks much like a woman's handbag (although he was first "outed" by the academic and cultural critic Andy Medhurst in a letter of July 1997 to The Face).[80] He aroused the interest of Jerry Falwell in 1999 when Falwell alleged that the character was a "gay role model". Falwell issued an attack in his National Liberty Journal, citing a Washington Post "In/Out" column which stated that lesbian comedian Ellen DeGeneres was "out" as the chief national gay representative, while trendy Tinky Winky was "in". He warned parents that Tinky Winky could be a covert homosexual symbol, because "he is purple, the gay pride colour, and his antenna is shaped like a triangle: the gay pride symbol."[81] The BBC made an official response, explaining that "Tinky Winky is simply a sweet, technological baby with a magic bag."[82] Ken Viselman of Itsy-Bitsy Entertainment commented, "He's not gay. He's not straight. He's just a character in a children's series."[83]

In May 2007, Polish Ombudsman for Children Ewa Sowińska revisited the matter, and planned to order an investigation.[84] "I noticed that he has a woman's handbag, but I didn't realise he's a boy," Sowińska said in a public statement. She asked her office's psychologists to look into the allegations. After the research in late 2007, she stated: "The opinion of a leading sexologist, who maintains that this series has no negative effects on a child's psychology, is perfectly credible. As a result I have decided that it is no longer necessary to seek the opinion of other psychologists."[85]

Despite the objections, the Independent on Sunday's editors included Tinky Winky as the only fictional character in the 2008 inaugural "Happy List", alongside 99 real-life adults recognised for making Britain a better and happier place.[86]

Cult following Edit

Although the programme is aimed at children between the ages of one and four, it had a substantial cult following with older generations, mainly university and college students.[51][87][88] The mixture of bright colours, unusual designs, repetitive non-verbal dialogue, ritualistic format, and occasional forays into physical comedy appealed to many who perceived the programme as having psychedelic qualities.[89]

Awards and nominations Edit

Year Presenter Award/Category Nominee Status Ref.
1997 City of Birmingham Awards Best Midlands-Produced Children's Television Production Ragdoll Productions Won [90]
NHK Japan Prize Grand Prize (Pre-School Education) [91]
Royal Television Society Children's Entertainment Award [92]
1998 British Academy of Film and Television Arts Best Pre-School Programme [93]
Marketing Society Awards New Product of the Year Golden Bear Toys [94]
Online Film & Television Association Best Children's Series Ragdoll Productions Nominated [95]
Television Critics Association Outstanding Achievement in Children's Programming
UK Independent Television Productions Awards NATS Children's Award Won [96]
1999 Daytime Emmy Awards Outstanding Pre-School Children's Series Nominated [97]
Licensing Industry Merchandiser's Association Overall License of the Year Won [98]
Independent Television Productions Awards Nickelodeon UK Children's Award [99]
Television Critics Association Outstanding Achievement in Children's Programming Nominated [100]
2000 Independent Television Productions Awards Audiocall Indie Children's Award Won [101]
Daytime Emmy Awards Outstanding Pre-School Children's Series Nominated [102]
Royal Television Society Education Award Won [103]
British Academy of Film and Television Arts Outstanding Contribution in Children's Television and Film Anne Wood [104]
2002 British Academy of Film and Television Arts Best Pre-School Live Action Series Ragdoll Productions [11]
2014 Prix Jeunesse "Most Edgy" Programme of the Last 50 Years [105]
Greatest Impact Programme of the Last 50 Years

Other media Edit

In popular culture Edit

  • In episode 12 of The Vicar of Dibley, Laa-Laa and Po are bridesmaids. They hold the wedding-dress train of Alice Springs Horton (née Tinker).
  • In the eleventh episode of the second series of The Chaser's War on Everything, the possibility of Tinky Winky being homosexual was parodied when the Chaser's tested the Peel Hotel (in Collingwood, Melbourne, Victoria)'s gaydar with a Tinky Winky costumed figure that acted in a stereotypical homosexual fashion.

CD single Edit

Main article: Teletubbies say "Eh-oh!"

In December 1997, BBC Worldwide released a CD single from the series, based on the show's theme song, called "Teletubbies say 'Eh-oh!'" It is the only single from Teletubbies, making the characters a one-hit wonder in the United Kingdom. The song was written by Andrew McCrorie-Shand and Andrew Davenport, and produced by McCrorie-Shand and Steve James. The single reached number 1 in the UK Singles Chart in December 1997, and remained in the Top 75 for 32 weeks after its release.[107]

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v - e - dRagdoll Productions
Founders Anne Wood · Andrew Davenport
TV series Pob's Programme (1985–1990) · Playbox (1987–1992) · Rosie and Jim (1990–2000) · Brum (1991–2002) · Tots TV (1993–1998) · Teletubbies (1997–2001, 2015–present) · Boohbah (2003–2006) · Blips (2004–2009) · In the Night Garden... (2007–2009) · Tronji (2009–2010) · The Adventures of Abney and Teal (2011–2012) · Dipdap (2011–2013) · Twirywoos (2015–2016)
Films Badjelly the Witch (2000) · What Makes Me Happy (2005)
  1. REDIRECT Template:Nigga Jr.
v - e - dPBS Kids original programming
1960s debuts Mister Rogers' Neighborhood (1968–2001)
1970s debuts The Electric Company (1971–1977) · Zoom (1972–1978)
1980s debuts 3-2-1 Contact (1980–1988) · Powerhouse (1982–1983) · Reading Rainbow (1983–2006) · Newton's Apple (1983–1999) · Kidsongs (1985–1998) · Square One Television (1987–1992) · Gerbert (1988–1991) · Shining Time Station (1989–1993) · Long Ago and Far Away (1989–1993)
1990s debuts Where in the World is Carmen Sandiego? (1991–1995) · The Big Comfy Couch (1992–2006) · Barney and Friends (1992–2009) · Lamb Chop's Play Along (1992–1997) · Ghostwriter (1992–1995) · Kino's Storytime (1992–1997) · Tots TV (1993–1998) · Theodore Tugboat (1993–2001) · Bill Nye the Science Guy (1993–1998) · The Adventures of Dudley the Dragon (1993–1999) · Katie and Orbie (1994–2002) · The Magic School Bus (1994–1997) · Globe Trekker (1994–2010) · The Huggabug Club (1995–2000) · The Puzzle Place (1995–1998) · Wimzie's House (1995–1996) · Wishbone (1995–2001) · Groundling Marsh (1995–1997) · Kratts' Creatures (1996) · Where in Time is Carmen Sandiego? (1996–1997) · Adventures from the Book of Virtues (1996–2000) · In the Mix (1996–2012) · Teletubbies (1997–2001) · Caillou (1997–2010) · The Charlie Horse Music Pizza (1998–1999) · Noddy (1998–2000) · Jay Jay the Jet Plane (1998–2005) · Elmo's World (1998–2009) · Zoom (1999–2005) · Zoboomafoo (1999–2001) · Redwall (1999–2002) · Dragon Tales (1999–2005)
2000s debuts Between the Lions (2000–2010) · The Dooley and Pals Show (2000–2003) · Clifford the Big Red Dog (2000–2003) · Corduroy (2000–2001) · Elliot Moose (2000–2001) · Marvin the Tap-Dancing Horse (2000–2002) · George Shrinks (2000–2004) · Seven Little Monsters (2000–2004) · Timothy Goes to School (2000–2001) · Anne of Green Gables (2001–2002) · Sagwa, the Chinese Siamese Cat (2001–2002) · DragonflyTV (2002–2008) · Angelina Ballerina (2002–2006) · Liberty's Kids (2002–2003) · Make Way for Noddy (2002–2007) · The Berenstain Bears (2002–2004) · Boohbah (2003–2006) · Jakers! The Adventures of Piggley Winks (2003–2007) · Clifford's Puppy Days (2003–2004) · Franny's Feet (2004–2011) · Peep and the Big Wide World (2004–2011) · Curiosity Quest (2004–2015) · Maya and Miguel (2004–2007) · Postcards from Buster (2004–2012) · It's a Big Big World (2005–2010) · Danger Rangers · The Zula Patrol (2005–2008) · Signing Time! (2006–2008) · Wunderkind Little Amadeus (2006) · Fetch! with Ruff Ruffman (2006–2010) · Curious George (2006–2015) · SeeMore's Playhouse (2006–2008) · Design Squad (2007–2011) · WordGirl (2007–2015) · WordWorld (2007–2011) · Super Why! (2007–2015) · Mama Mirabelle's Home Movies (2007–2008) · Animalia (2007–2008) · Biz Kid$ (2008–2012) · Betsy's Kindergarten Adventures (2008–2009) · Martha Speaks (2008–2014) · Sid the Science Kid (2008–2013) · Lomax, the Hound of Music (2008) · The Electric Company (2009–2011) · Angelina Ballerina: The Next Steps (2009–2010) · Dinosaur Train (since 2009–2017)
Current Sesame Street (since 1969; second run since 2016) · Thomas and Friends (since 1989) · Arthur (since 1996) · Bob the Builder (since 1998) · Cyberchase (since 2000) · SciGirls (since 2010) · The Cat in the Hat Knows a Lot About That! (since 2010) · Wild Kratts (since 2011) · Daniel Tiger's Neighborhood (since 2012) · Peg + Cat (since 2013) · Odd Squad (since 2014) · Nature Cat (since 2015) · Ready Jet Go! (since 2016) · Splash and Bubbles (since 2016)
See also PBS network shows · Educational television